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      請稍候...
      中西醫說蟲草
      冬蟲夏草對超強度運動大鼠心肌保護作用
      發布時間:2016-01-28
      摘要:運動尤其是大運動量運動可導致心肌損傷,應用藥物減輕運動對心肌的損傷是國內外學者關注的熱點。在我國對獨特的中草藥冬蟲夏草的心血管保健作用的研究不少,但應電鏡進行蟲草對運動致心肌損傷保護作用的超微結構研究尚來見報道。
             作者:曹曉哲 錢震 趙廣才 哈英娣
             運動尤其是大運動量運動可導致心肌損傷,應用藥物減輕運動對心肌的損傷是國內外學者關注的熱點。在我國對獨特的中草藥冬蟲夏草的心血管保健作用的研究不少,但應電鏡進行蟲草對運動致心肌損傷保護作用的超微結構研究尚來見報道。所以本文著重在蟲草對運動心肌保護作用的超徽結構上進行了研究,為運動醫學及保健醫學提供部分實驗依據。
             1材料和方法
             1.1實驗動物和實驗條件
             正常雄性Wistar大鼠18只(甘肅省腫瘤研宄所提供),體重200~250克。隨機分為3組,每組6只。
             蟲草提取液(由西北師大植物研究所提供),劑量10mg/kg/日,溶于1.5ml生理鹽水內。
             A組為正常對照組,腹腔注射蟲草提取液。每日1次,共給藥3周,但不參加訓練,自由活動。
             B組為單純運動坦,不給藥,訓練條件同C組。
             C組為運動加蟲草組。在運動訓練前1周開始腹腔注射蟲草提取液,每日1次,直到訓練結束。訓練用平扳跑步機,跑速為26m/min,坡度為12 °, 每天持續運動60分鐘,訓練2周,跑步機后擋扳上裝有電刺激裝置,迫使動物竭力運動。
             1.2 制備電鏡樣品和電鏡理察
             A組動物在給藥3周后,B組和C組動物在訓練2周停1后第2天快速致死。立即在心尖部取下心肌一小塊,迅速切成約1mm大小,4%和戊二醛和1%鋨酸雙同定,Epon812包埋。用LKB-v型超薄切片機切片,醋酸鈾和檸檬酸鉛雙染色,在JEM-1200EX透射電鏡下進行詳盡均超微結構理察及拍照。
             2 結果
             2.1  A組
             心肌細胞膜清晰, 無增厚,胞膜下間隙不增寬,胞飲現象偶見,胞膜外來見到大量膠原纖維。肌節分布均勻,Z線清晰,肌絲排列整齊、清楚,走向一致。
             線粒體太小較一致,線粒體膜、嵴及基粒(elementary partides)清晰可見,基質均勻,中等電子密度。肌漿網無擴張, 基質電子密度均勻。糖原顆粒散在分布于核周及心肌細胞膜下。
             2.2  B組心肌細胞膜增厚,形成許多指狀突起,胞膜下間隙明顯增寬,胞飲增多,并可見到一些高電子密度小體,肌膜處可見大量的膠廈纖維。
             肌節長短不等或不對稱,Z線增粗,肌原纖維彎曲,走向紊亂,部分斷裂,局部肌絲消失,進而由糖原、線粒體、肌漿網等填充。
             線粒體增大, 部分膜破裂, 嵴斷裂,蠟溶解及脫基粒,基質電子密度降低,出現絮狀物。部分空泡化及髓樣體形成。
             肌漿網彌漫性擴張和局灶性增生,呈囊泡狀,內含絮狀物或膜性小泡。
             糖原穎粒較C組減少。
             2.3 C組
             心肌細胞膜與B組相比增厚不明顯,胞膜外未見到膠原原纖維。肌原纖維損傷較輕微,僅可見到局部肌原纖維輕度溶解,來見到成片狀消失。
             線粒體增大不明顯,線粒體膜,嵴較清晰,基質電子密度輕度降低。未見到空泡變性及髓樣體形成。
             肌漿網輕度擴張,數量明顯少于B組。
             糖原顆粒彌漫分布,多位于心肌細胞胞8膜下區 ,核周區,肌漿網及線粒體增生區。
             3組動物心肌細胞核未見明顯變化。
             討論
             大運動量可導致心肌形態學的改變,這種改變與運動類型、持續時間及運動強度密切相關。一般將運動對心臟的影響分為3個階段:(1)功能代償性增強期;(2)功能代償期;(3)心肌組織學退化期。此時,心肌功能衰退,且在形態上出現改變。本實驗動物訓練時間為2周,運動速度為28m/min 坡度12°,運動持續時間60min。 結果發現,如此大強度大運動量的訓練,能夠導致動物心肌形態學的明顯改變。
             3.1 心肌代償性肥大時,心肌細胞首先是線粒體出現改變。本實驗也是如此,包括線粒體體積增大,部分膜破裂,嵴斷裂、嵴溶解及脫基粒,基質電子密度降低,空泡化及髓樣體形成。這主要是大強度運動后,機體供氧相對不足,血氧下降,冠脈血供不能滿足心肌代謝的需要,心肌細胞處于缺氧狀態,而線粒體是心肌細胞有氧氧化合成ATP的場所,對缺氧十分敏感,故首先出現形態改變。由于線粒體形態結構的變化,其臺成ATP的機能和離子傳遞的機能降低,ATP生成減少,而造成肌節收縮和舒張緩慢,出現肌原纖維的攣縮和松弛,肌絲斷裂和解聚,形態上表現為肌節長短不等或不對稱,Z線增粗,肌原纖維彎曲,走向紊亂。如進一步加大運動量及延長持續時間,則心機纖維溶解消失,而出現所謂的“運動性心肌梗死”。
             3.2 對于心肌細胞膜的增厚及胞膜外大量的膠原原纖維的增生,可能是心肌細胞對運動的代償反應。而胞膜形成指狀突起和胞飲增多,則是心肌細胞代謝旺盛的標志,而肌漿網的擴張和糖原的減少,則都是心肌細胞缺氧的表現。
             但在預先給予蟲草的C組動物中,盡管訓練條件相同,但未出現以上B組的超徽結構方面的明顯改變,而僅有線粒體的輕度腫脹,其它與正常組基本相同,這說明蟲草對超強度大運動量過程中的心肌具有明顯的保護作用。

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